Infection control and standard precautions among healthcare professionals

Background
Infection control measures among healthcare providers play a key role in reducing the spread of the communicable diseases. Further, the failure to adhere to set infection control mechanisms has contributed to the spread of illnesses among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. This study offers an assessment of infection control and standard precautions among healthcare professionals.
 
Methods
A quantitative research approach was utilized to assess the healthcare providers’ knowledge on infection control and their adherence to the standard precautions. Descriptive and cross-sectional study designs were employed for healthcare workers from a tertiary hospital in *****. The standardized tool for this study comprises two main domains; the attitude and knowledge of healthcare workers on Infection Control (IC) and Standard Precaution (SPs). The knowledge, in particular, consist of five subdomains (risk management, hands hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharps disposal and sharp injuries, and condition of the healthcare provider).
 
Results
Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to healthcare professionals equally. Only 200 were valid for statistical analysis. Overall results indicated a satisfactory level of both knowledge and attitude towards infection control standards. On a five point likert scale, the study indicated that healthcare workers have a good attitude towards the adherence to the standard practice (m=4.58). Moreover, a three point likert scale showed a high overall knowledge m=2.73) with RM (m=2.80), HH (m=2.85), PPE (m=2.81), SD and SI (m=2.48) and PC (m=2.73).
 
Conclusions
The results indicate that healthcare professionals’ attitude and knowledge of infection control have a significant impact on complying with required standard procedures. In particular, wearing protective equipment, ensuring hand hygiene, safe disposal of sharps, and dealing with sharp injuries play a significant role in general compliance.
Table of Contents
Table of ContentsDeclaration iDedication iiAcknowledgments iiiABSTRACT ivList of Tables viiiList of Figures ixList of Acronyms xChapter One: Introduction 111.1 Background 11Need for Standard Precautions (SPs) 11Role of infection control measures 12Risk of HCWs exposure 14Preventing cases of occupational exposure 151.2 Statement of the Problem 171.3 Statement of the Purpose 181.4 Aims and Objectives of study 181.5 Research Questions 181.6 Definition of Variables and other terms 19Knowledge 19Practice 19Standard precautions 19Occupational exposure 20Blood-borne infections 201.7 Conceptual Framework 20Chapter Two: Literature Review 222.1 Introduction 222.1.1 Elements of the standard precautions 242.2 Knowledge of Standard Precautions 272.2.1 Definition of knowledge 272.2.2 Isolation Precautions in Hospitals 282.2.3 Adherence to standard precautions 292.3 Issues in adhering with Standard Precautions 342.3.1 Challenges of adhering to the standards precautions 342.3.2 Reasons for non-compliance 342.4 Cognitive and Affective Factors 362.5 Psychological Concepts and adherence with Standard Precautions 372.6 Behavioral Intentions in Choice and uncertainty Situations 372.7 Judgment under Conditions of Uncertainty 382.8 Gap of Knowledge 392.9 Summary 40Chapter Three: Methodology 423.1 Study Design 423.2 Study Setting 433.3 Study Subjects 443.4 Data Source and Study Sample 443.5 Data Collection tools 443.6 Study Variables 453.7 Pilot Study 453.8 Data Collection 473.9 Statistical Analysis 483.10 Ethical Consideration 483.11 Summary 49Chapter 4: RESULTS, FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS 504.1 Introduction 504.2 Data collection and respondents demographic characteristics 504.2.1 Gender and nationality classification of the respondents 514.2.1 Respondents data on their profession 514.2.3 Data on respondents’ station of activity 524.2.4 Data on participants’ station of activity and their professional role 534.2.6 Years of experience of the respondents 544.2.7 Respondents’ years of experience in the station of activity 554.2.8. Respondents’ observation to Risk Management 564.2.9. Respondent’s observation to hand hygiene 564.2.10 Respondent’s observation to use of PPE 574.2.11 Respondent’s observation to handling of sharps 574.2.12 Respondent’s observation to worker’s condition 584.2.13 Knowledge overall 584.2.14 Attitude overall 594.2.15 Knowledge and attitude vs. Station of Activity 594.2.16 Knowledge and Attitude vs. Professional Role 614.2.17 Knowledge and Attitude vs. years of experience 624.2.18 Summary of the analysis 63CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS 665.1 Introduction 665.2 Overview of the study 665.3 Discussion 685.4 Conclusion and Recommendation 73References 76APPENDICES 80Appendix A: Ethical Approval 80Appendix B: Approved Data Collection Form 80Appendix C: Approved Informed Consent Form 80
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