Section A (chapter 1 & 2) provides insightful information about the quality of life of the animals inhabiting Manor Farm. Old Major’s need to impart wisdom on the other animals indicates that the animals build up in resentment towards the farm owner, Mr. Jones’ undervalued treatment despite the benefits, they offered him (Corwell 28). Orwell’s allegorical characters and literal content served as a reflection of the current states of affairs in Russia. Old Major’s ideologies mirrored Marx and Lenin’s ideologies, which advocated for the abandonment of totalitarian systems of governances by leaders such as Mr. Jones and Czar Nickolas (Corwell 31). Orwell’s introduction of the concept of ‘Animalism’ also served as a reflection of Soviet Communism (Corwell 45).
Section B (chapter 3 & 4) gives a detailed account of the animals’ enjoyment of freedom after they successfully rebelled against Mr. Jones and expelled him from Manor farm. All the animals worked hard to contribute to the farm’s output with the exception of the pigs who assumed the leadership roles (Corwell 55). Orwell’s literal work depicts the impact had by communist ideologies in Russia; for example, he posits that the elite in the society create the concept of elitism which might result in the subjugation of others. The power struggle between Napoleon and Snowball is symbolic; it symbolizes the existing power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky. In addition, the rebellions of animals on other farms against their human masters symbolize the world’s reaction to communist ideologies in Russia (Corwell 60). Russia ceased to be a backward country because communism brought about progress and organization after the Russian revolution proved successful.
Section C (chapter 5) highlights the problems facing the animals on the farm with the approaching of winter, which necessitated them to work twice as hard (Corwell 65). Some animals, for example, Mollie, were unable to cope with their fulfillment of their obligations. In addition, the other animals charged the pigs with responsibility of making policies, which worsened the rivalry between Napoleon and Snowballs (Corwell 70). This was Orwell’s depiction of the worsening of the relationship between Stalin and Trotsky. The two disagreed on matters relating to the improvement of industrialization in Russia, which proved necessary for the progress of the country (Corwell 72).
Section D (chapter 6 & 7) covers Napoleon’s reign and his domineering attitude towards the other animals during the building of the windmill (Corwell 86). This symbolized Stalin’s insistence that citizen’s efforts remain directed towards the institution of the heavy industries. As a result, shortages of consumer products became widespread in Russia rendering Stalin incapable of running the country’s economy without trading with other nations (Corwell 88). In addition, Stalin uses scare tactics to induce fear among the people in order to deflect them to the struggles caused by failure of his policies.
Section E (chapter 8 & 9) deals with the effects of the distraction of the windmill, which symbolized the effects had on the Russian population after World War II (Corwell 98). The war destroyed the industrial sector of Russia which the citizens had worked tirelessly to establish in the past decades. This demoralized most of the citizens who became aware of the inequality between them and the elite class. Despite this, the citizens’ resolve to rebuild their country motivated them to work hard towards rebuilding efforts. Stalin’s totalitarian government used propaganda to coerce the citizens to work towards the rebuilding of their nation (Corwell 103).
Section F (chapter 10) presents readers with the maxim ‘all animals are equal; however, others prove to be more equal than others’ (Corwell 133). Only a few animals survive after ten years; in addition, survivors barely remember the rebellion. Napoleon’s elite class; the pigs and dogs continue to take advantage of the other animals. Orwell’s end to his literal work seeks to enlighten people by warning them about leaders who adopt socialist ideas, for example, Stalin and Hitler, for their own aggrandizement (Corwell 130).
Corwell, George. Animal Farm. Russia: Nick Hern Books, 2004.
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